| Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of insufficient sleep duration in medical students with migraine, and provide a reference for improving sleep problems. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method enrolled 546 medical students who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition (ICHD-3) for migraine from July 2018 to July 2019 in North Sichuan Medical College. General demographic and clinical data of medical students were collected, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale(HAMA) and the Hamilton Depression Scale-24 item (HAMD-24) were used to assess anxiety and depression, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the 6-item Headache Impact Test Questionnaire (HIT-6) were used to assess headache severity and impact on daily life. Sleep time ≤6 h was the insufficient sleep duration group, and >6 h was the sufficient sleep duration group. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the influencing factors of insufficient sleep duration in migraine patients. Results Among 546 medical students with migraine, 179 (32.78%) had insufficient sleep duration(≤6h). The differences between the group with insufficient sleep duration(n=179) and sufficient sleep duration(n=367) were statistically significant (P<0.05 or 0.01) in terms of age (t=2.107), headache frequency (Z=-2.972), anxiety (χ2=14.053), depression (χ2=10.773), total PSQI score (t=-13.247), and sleep quality (χ2=94.754). Correlation analysis showed that sleep duration in migraine patients was negatively correlated with age (r=-0.100, P<0.01) and positively correlated with headache frequency, anxiety, and depression (r=0.135, 0.169, 0.139, P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=0.860, 95% CI: 0.743~0.996, P=0.045), headache frequency (OR=1.051, 95% CI: 1.006~1.098, P=0.026), depression (OR=1.712, 95% CI: 1.024~2.861, P=0.040) were influential factors for insufficient sleep duration in migraine patients. Conclusion High prevalence of insufficient sleep duration among medical students with migraine, high headache frequency and depression as risk factors, and age as a protective factor.